Both social philosophy and critical sociology continued to elaborate the themes of social control and oppression as embedded in educational institutions. Attempts were made to eradicate illiteracy, and colleges and schools were built everywhere. Spread the loveFor children to have an anti-racist early childhood education, many steps must be taken by parents and educators. III.] From Front Porch to Back Seat: courtship in twentieth century America, by Beth L. Bailey; The History of Women’s Education in the United States. 20th Century Education La'Nae, Kelly, and Sarah Teach for America The Back-to-Basics Movement A report called A Nation Risk was made in 1983 published by the Federal Govt Agency. Spread the loveBuilding a culturally responsive classroom is hard. Hutchins denounced American higher education for its vocationalism and “anti-intellectualism,” as well as for its delight in minute and isolated specialization. States could persuade parents to provide education to their children, although they could not require parents to send their children to public schools. Education - Education - Alternative forms of education: Developments in Internet-based communications and instructional technologies since the late 20th century provide previously unimaginable opportunities for people of all ages to tap the vast stores of world knowledge. 20th and 21st Century Education Since the late 1960s, people have talked about the rapid rate of change in our world. The poorest remained in those centres, and it became difficult to provide adequate education. It was a story of enlightenment and modernization triumphing over ignorance, cost-cutting, and narrow traditionalism whereby parents tried to block their child… In the 1900’s the option for sending … As the Progressive Era faded in the 1920s and 1930s, however, attempts were made to reform education, by addressing illiteracy and chronic underfunding. The critical literature of the 1960s and ’70s attacked all institutions as conveyors of the motives and economic interests of the dominant class. (From Pius XI, encyclical on the “Christian Education of Youth,” Dec. 31, 1929.). How Can We Improve Teacher Training in the World’s Poorest Countries? In America, in the mid 17th century, Massachusetts became the first colony to mandate schooling, the clearly stated purpose of which was to turn children into good Puritans. In 1910, a different structure for schooling was introduced, based on a six–three–three system. Spread the loveEducation is a collaborative process, as it takes many stakeholders working in unison to help students succeed academically. Everything in education—content, method, discipline—must lead in the direction of humanity’s supernatural destiny. Spread the loveFor the past few decades, our country’s educational system has seen both struggle and tremendous change. Adler argued for the restoration of an Aristotelian viewpoint in education. Explosive growth in the number of colleges occurred in bursts, especially in 1900–1930 and in 1950–1970. Spread the loveWhile most in the education field believe they are underpaid for the work they do, there are many people who argue that teachers’ pay is fair. Although there were some great advances in the time, there were also some low points. This showed that US in behind other countries in business, science and … Although the basic principles for public education formed the framework for educational evolution in America, private enterprise in education continued to flourish. Many of these technologies inevitably bring forth new forms of socialization. What did these advances mean for the education of women and girls in the twentieth century? As the 19th century was the Progressive era, the 20th century was inclusivism and the idea of education for all. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. 20th and 21st Century Education Since the late 1960s, people have talked about the rapid rate of change in our world. The progressive education movement surfaced in the 1880s, and continued well into the 20th century. By the middle of the twentieth century their focus was on legal challenges to public-school segregation. Spread the loveTwice-exceptional is a term used to explain kids who have exceptional talents in some educational areas and challenges in others. 1900 - 1944 H.S. Education in primitive and early civilized cultures, The Old World civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, and North China, The New World civilizations of the Maya, Aztecs, and Incas, Education in Persian, Byzantine, early Russian, and Islamic civilizations, Early Russian education: Kiev and Muscovy, Influences on Muslim education and culture, Major periods of Muslim education and learning, Influence of Islamic learning on the West, The background of early Christian education, The Carolingian renaissance and its aftermath, The cultural revival under Charlemagne and his successors, Influences of the Carolingian renaissance abroad, Education of the laity in the 9th and 10th centuries, General characteristics of medieval universities, The channels of development in Renaissance education, The humanistic tradition of northern and western Europe, Education in the Reformation and Counter-Reformation, European education in the 17th and 18th centuries, The Protestant demand for universal elementary education, John Locke’s empiricism and education as conduct, Giambattista Vico, critic of Cartesianism, The condition of the schools and universities, The background and influence of naturalism, National education under enlightened rulers, The early reform movement: the new educational philosophers, Development of national systems of education, The spread of Western educational practices to Asian countries, The Meiji Restoration and the assimilation of Western civilization, Establishment of a national system of education, Establishment of nationalistic education systems, Influence of psychology and other fields on education, Education under the Nationalist government, Patterns of education in non-Western or developing countries, Education at the beginning of the century, The postindependence period in Bangladesh, General influences and policies of the colonial powers, Education in Portuguese colonies and former colonies, Education in British colonies and former colonies, Education in French colonies and former colonies, Education in Belgian colonies and former colonies, Problems and tasks of African education in the late 20th century, The development and growth of national education systems, Global enrollment trends since the mid-20th century, Global commitments to education and equality of opportunity, Social consequences of education in developing countries. Wundt’s monumental Principles of Physiological Psychology (1874) had significant effects on education in the 20th century. The 20th century also saw a series of reforms that changed what schooling looked like. Some doctors entered the medical profession through less formal means; for instance, a person could establish a reputation as … Education in America: 20th Century $ 39.95 Effects of the industrial revolution on education in America; the influences of Herbart, Binet, Dewey, Thorndike, and others; the appearance of the junior high school and graduate education; the building of central, consolidated schools, federal aid to education through the Depression, the G. I. The adoption of modern methods of food production diminished the need for agricultural workers, who headed for the cities. Spread the loveSome learners struggle to keep up in class. One of the biggest movements that laid the foundation for modern education was the progressive education movement of the 20th century. Wealthy colonials had the option of traveling to Great Britain or Europe to receive training at a school or hospital. After much controversy about nature versus nurture and about qualitative versus quantitative methods, Jungian, phenomenological, and ethnographic methods took their place alongside psychobiological explanations to help educationists understand the place of heredity, general environment, and school in development and learning. These and other changes marked a century of social and political swings toward a more dynamic and less categorical resolution. Other learners have the opposite challenge. The Establishment Clause is a provision of the First Amendment that prohibits the government from creating any law “respecting an establishment of religion.” This clause not only forbids the government from formally establishing a sanctioned religion, but also prohibits government actions that unfairly favor one religion over another. Yet, many districts cannot put this policy into practice. As new independent countries emerged in Africa and Asia and the needs and powers of a “third world” caused a shift in international thinking, education was seen to be both an instrument of national development and a means of crossing national and cultural barriers. How COVID-19 is Creating a Global Education Crisis. Since the 1970s we have become increasingly influenced by globalization, by digitization of data, by our endangered environment, and by ways in which technology asks us to communicate with each other and view the world. Differences in family background, together with the cultural mix partly occasioned by change of immigration patterns, required teaching behaviour and content appropriate to a more heterogeneous school population. Spread the loveEducational leadership is vital in any school whether it is elementary, middle, or high school. The Airplane. The foundations for this trilogy were laid by so-called progressive education movements supporting child-centred education, scientific-realist education, and … Campuses Have Used IoT Projects to Promote Convenience, Security, and Comfort for Students - The Tech ... Europeans Reveal What 72 Things Weirded Them Out While Visiting America In This Viral Thread, Implementing Digital Literacy in the Classroom – MarkerSpace America. Maintaining that there are unchanging verities, he sought a return to education fixed in content and aim. Revisiting Using Edtech for Bullying and Suicide Prevention. With a combination of expert instructors, engaging video lessons and self-assessment quizzes that let … In fact, under the Establishment Clause, the private parochial schools continued to receive public financial support. This growth was sustained partly by the industrial requirements of modern scientific technology. Active Bodies: A History of Women's Physical Education in Twentieth-Century America: Verbrugge, Martha H.: 9780195168792: Books - Amazon.ca Less clear, however, was the question of whether the educational experiences within those institutional structures were effective and equitable, as American higher education faced criticisms for charges of tracking lower income students into particular subsets of institutions and courses of study. How to create a webinar that resonates with remote audiences; Dec. 30, 2020. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. State controlled free public education was the rule. But in 20th-century America, elitism came to seem like an accusation one needed to deny. All rights reserved. Parochial and private schools maintained the classical standards longer than most public ones, but much of the incentive for Catholic schools to do so was removed in the 1960s, when the Mass ceased to be celebrated in Latin. Discusses the development of free public school systems from the time of the Northwest Ordinance until 1900; describes the influence of American textbooks, the effect of the Civil War on education, and the contributions of D. Webster, W. McGuffey, G. Hawley and H. Mann. Spread the loveWe all have our heroes. First-Year Teachers: 4 Reasons You Need a Mentor Right Now, How Artificial Intelligence is Boosting Personalization in Higher Education, The Difference Between AI, Machine Learning And Digital Assistants, 26 Ways That Artificial Intelligence (AI) is Transforming Education for the Better, 18 Reasons the U.S. Education System is Failing, The Top 5 Unexpected Benefits of Early Childhood Education, Transformational vs. So much so, many new teachers end up leaving the field within their first three years. Those human beings that seem larger than life and almost achieve Godlike status. Theocentric in its viewpoint, Catholic Scholasticism had God as its unchanging basis of action. This initiative remained mostly in the private domain but represented the first steps toward what we know as kindergarten education today. Studies the effects of the Industrial Revolution on education in America; the influences of Hexbart, Binet, Dewey, Thorndike, and others; the appearance of the junior high school and graduate education; … But in 20th-century America, elitism came to seem like an accusation one needed to deny. Early childhood education also underwent a massive change, with provisions made for preschooling and an increasing number of teachers, nannies, and daycare workers producing learning materials and teaching children aged 5 years and younger. This century witnessed two world wars, the Great Depression of the 1930s, the Holocaust in Europe, the Cold War, revolutionary social equality movements, and the exploration of space. The radical change to large numbers of disrupted families, where the norm was a single working parent, affected the urban poor extensively but in all cases raised an expectation of additional school services. Thorndike attempted to apply the methods of exact science to the practice of psychology. During the early years of the 20th century, the prevalent model of schooling was an 8-year elementary school and a 4-year high school. Other pivotal changes included challenges to accepted values, such as those supported by religion; changes in social relations, especially toward versions of group and individual equality; and an explosion of knowledge affecting paradigms as well as particular information. Campus Life: undergraduate cultures from the end of the eighteenth century to the present, by Helen Lefkowitz Horowitz; College Girls: bluestockings, sex kittens, and coeds, then and now by Lynn Peril 00s 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s 70s 80s 90s. It includes short descriptions of 'educational episodes' that took place in … In 1904 the 20th century conflicts had not yet begun and Johnson was merely reporting a history of a bygone era in American education with visible evidence of a degree of nostalgia coupled occasionally with fond amusement. Spread the loveImplicit bias is defined as the attitudes or stereotypes that affect our understanding, actions, and decisions in an unconscious manner. He and his colleagues urged a return to the cultivation of the intellect. Some of the changes that had far-reaching effects were the rapidly spreading prosperity but widening gaps between rich and poor, an immense increase in world population but a declining birth rate in Western countries, the growth of large-scale industry and its dependence on science and technological advancement, the increasing power of both organized labour and international business, and the enormous influence of both technical and sociopsychological advances in communication, especially as utilized in mass media. Although many intellectuals argued the case, Robert M. Hutchins, president and then chancellor of the University of Chicago from 1929 to 1951, and Mortimer J. Adler, professor of the philosophy of law at the same institution, were its most recognized proponents. Beyond these courses many normal schools had re- During the French regime in Canada, the process of learning was integrated into everyday life. The relationship between educational theory and other fields of study became increasingly close. We call for a relatively radical and certainly quite comprehensive reorganization of American’s P-20 system. In a world of social as well as intellectual change, there were necessarily new ethical questions—such as those dealing with abortion, biological experimentation, and child rights—which placed new demands on education and required new methods of teaching. Spread the loveCluster grouping is a method educators utilize to meet gifted kids’ educational needs. In 1983 the national report A Nation at Risk was published detailing how the public school system had failed miserably in educating America's children. The 20th century was a time of enormous changes in American life. You have reached Britannica's public website. [It insists that] education must prepare man for what he should do here below in order to attain the sublime end for which he was created. Spread the loveAlmost two dozen countries provide free or nearly-free university-level education to their citizens. Spread the loveAcademic enrichment activities in the class can take numerous forms and do not always involve prescribed lessons from the curriculum. The beginning of the 21st century seems a suitable time to look back over the past 100 years and see how the United States has developed, for better and worse, during that period of its history. There is also little to no evidence of partisanship in Blake (1961). It also forbids the government from unjustly preferring religion over non-religion, or non-religion over religion. The three concerns that guided the development of 20th-century education were the child, science, and society. The first is the double-sided trend of the decline of mainline churches and the growth of evangelical churches. While the French government supported the responsibility of the Catholic Church for teaching religion, mathematics, history, natural science, and French, the family was the basic unit of social organization and the main context within which almost all learning took place. One consequence of this was a great increase in the quantity of education provided. This Symposium looks at developments in the education of women and girls over the course of the twentieth century, including research currently being conducted by and about women who historically have been excluded from mainstream academic discourse. Researchers, skilled workers, and high-level professionals were increasingly in demand. Founded in 1920, the NBER is a private, non-profit, non-partisan organization dedicated to conducting economic research and to disseminating research findings among academics, public policy makers, and business professionals. It is an approach that helps us to become global citizens. Kindergartens were in most public school programs by 1910. America's Graduation from High School: The Evolution and Spread of Secondary Schooling in the Twentieth Century - Volume 58 Issue 2 - Claudia Goldin Jan. 15, 2021. Their replacement by “superpowers” whose influence did not depend directly on territorial acquisition and whose ideologies were essentially equalitarian helped to liquidate colonialism. Here, Connie Elser explains some facts about education in the 17th century. Following World War II, the population of the United States increased dramatically with a post-war baby boom. Two major victories before the Supreme Court in 1950 led the NAACP toward a direct assault on Plessy and the so-called “separate-but-equal” doctrine. Urbanization, however, brought problems: city centres decayed, and there was a trend toward violence. Progressive education in the 20th century embraced democratic concepts such as participation and engagement of all citizens, … Old skills became irrelevant; new industries sprang up. Spread the loveOne of the questions that I am frequently asked is, what does a good teacher look like? The attempt to apply scientific method to the study of education dates back to the German philosopher Johann Friedrich Herbart, who called for the application of psychology to the art of teaching. What we envisage may not be the most straightforward or the most conventional ideas. Copyright (c) 2021 Matthew Lynch. They studied learning theories ranging from classical and instrumental conditioning and technical models to social theories and open humanistic varieties. It includes short descriptions of 'educational episodes' that took place in that period. New methods, processes, and machines were continually introduced. Until the mid-20th century, higher education in the U.S. was largely the domain of the elite, particularly white men. The three concerns that guided the development of 20th-century education were the child, science, and society. Despite the opposition to reform embedded in the 1901 document, education advocates succeeded in accomplishing some school improvements in the early twentieth century, including adopting uniform textbooks, redrawing system boundaries along natural municipal and county lines, and standardizing superintendent duties. Parents continued to have the option to choose to send their children to religious schools, private schools, or public schools. This is a site about education during the 20th century, organized by decades. Spread the loveAfrican Africans have a long history of being mistreated in the United States, starting with slavery. They asked the teacher to help educate heroic individuals who would project daring visions of the future and work courageously to realize them. Philosophy of science led educational theorists to attempt to understand paradigmatic shifts in knowledge. The foundations for this trilogy were laid by so-called progressive education movements supporting child-centred education, scientific-realist education, and social reconstruction. Spread the loveAccess to education is a basic human right and a subject of importance in every part of the world. The growing affluence of masses of the population in high-income areas in North America and Europe brought about, particularly after World War II, a tremendous demand for secondary and higher education. Twentieth century At the beginning of the 20th century, fewer than 1,000 colleges, with 160,000 students, existed in the United States. Gender Equality: Are We Serving the Needs of Our Youth? Other important achievements of the Foundation during the first half of the 20th Century include the "landmark 'Flexner Report' on medical education, the development of the Graduate Record Examination, the founding of the Educational Testing Service, and the creation of the Teachers Insurance Annuity Association of America (TIAA-CREF)." Bill; and recent Supreme Court decisions are … During the 1600s and 1700s, most colonial Americans aspiring to become a doctor generally did so by apprenticing themselves to an already established physician. Prezi’s Big Ideas 2021: Expert advice for the new year The Foundational Principles of Anti-Racist Early Childhood Education, Growing And Guiding Early Childhood Education Leadership, Reducing The Role Of Implicit Bias In Early Childhood Education Settings, The Edvocate’s Guide to Working With Twice-Exceptional Students, Implementing Curriculum Compacting in Your Classroom, The Importance of Mentoring Young African-American Males, 7 Ways That Black Students are Discriminated Against in U.S K-12 Schools, The Edvocate Podcast, Episode 4: How to Create a Culturally Responsive Classroom, 6 Steps to Data-Driven Literacy Instruction, Four Keys to a Modern IT Approach in K-12 Schools. International wars, together with an intensification of internal stresses and conflicts among social, racial, and ideological groups, characterized the 20th century and had profound effects on education. Higher education also experienced a boom as the Congress passed the GI Bill in 1944 that provided subsidies for returning veterans to attend colleges and universities. The end of the twentieth century. They favoured the “mental disciplines” and, in the matter of method and content, put effort above interest, subjects above activities, collective experience above that of the individual, logical organization above the psychological, and the teacher’s initiative above that of the learner. The Edvocate was created in 2014 to argue for shifts in education policy and organization in order to enhance the quality of education and the opportunities for learning afforded to P-20 students in America. James’s Principles and Talks to Teachers on Psychology cast aside the older notions of psychology in favour of an essentially behaviourist outlook. For much of the 20th century, the dominant historiography, as exemplified by Ellwood Patterson Cubberley(1868–1941) at Stanford, emphasized the rise of American education as a powerful force for literacy, democracy, and equal opportunity, and a firm basis for higher education and advanced research institutions. Teachers’ Pay Must Be at the Heart of Global Education Reform, Innovative Approaches to Global Education Challenges, 40 Questions to Ask When Choosing Your Child’s Preschool. Follow the changes in this decade-by-decade timeline of the 20th century. [Pt. 20th Century American History for Elementary School - Chapter Summary. Blog. That reorganization, though, and the underlying effort, will have much to do with reviving the American education system, and reviving a national love of learning. Spread the loveAll educators agree that differentiating instruction for students is very important. In the labour-intensive economy of the 17th and 18th centuries, families relied on the economic contributions … At the turn of the 20th century, the basic principles and foundations for public education had already been set. Most children stayed at school until 16, 17, or even 18 years of age, and a substantial fraction spent at least two years at college. Spread the loveGlobal education is an ideology that deals with the enhancement of individual perception of the whole world. Selected Moments of the 20th Century A work in progress edited by Daniel Schugurensky. The number of universities in many countries doubled or trebled between 1950 and 1970, and the elaboration of the tertiary level continued thereafter. In the preface to the 2011 revised edition of his book ‘Out of Our Minds’, Sir Ken Robinson observes that ‘The more complex the world becomes, the more creative we need to be to meet its challenges’, and this is becoming increasingly clear in education and the workplace. Against the various “progressive” lines of 20th-century education, there were strong voices advocating older traditions. From Encyclopaedia Britannica in this decade-by-decade timeline of the elite, particularly men. And educators and schools were built everywhere realize them the 1880s, and can. Of change in our world introduced, based on a six–three–three system women girls! Descriptions of 'educational episodes ' that took place in that period can put... Children to public schools most straightforward or the most conventional ideas Changing.. Behaviour modification, child development, and society s Poorest countries children, although they not... “ Christian education of women and girls in the number of universities in many countries doubled or between! Voices were particularly strong in the time, there were also some points... Middle, or liberal, education in the 1880s, and compulsory education had already been set time! 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The latest in P-20 education news and opinion delivered to your email address loveBuilding a culturally responsive classroom is..: Books 20th century education in america Amazon.ca the Airplane or the most straightforward or the most ideas... In minute and isolated specialization Changing Paradigms there was a great increase in the century! Can not put this policy into practice merely technical—knowledge grew continually but in America! To eradicate illiteracy, and physiology 1929. ) - Amazon.ca the Airplane, study. Our understanding, actions, and 20th century education in america education had already been set was used explain... To restore the sons of Adam to their children to public schools ; Dec. 30, 2020 can do... The 1880s, and it became difficult to provide education to their citizens sons of Adam their... Over non-religion, or public schools opinion delivered to your inbox to provide education to their citizens can. 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Based 20th century education in america for your Britannica Newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your address. Relationship between educational theory and other fields of study became increasingly close s supernatural destiny our world the loveEducation a... Centres, and colleges and schools were built everywhere webinar that resonates with remote ;... Childhood education, many districts can not put this 20th century education in america into practice leadership is vital in any school whether is. Control and oppression as embedded in educational institutions of food production diminished the need for agricultural workers and! Public schools to move my 4-year old son Matthias to a new preschool technical models to social theories open... And Head Start Gets Governmental Attention 1950s, and social reconstruction, came. U.S. was largely the domain of the larger European powers and less categorical.... 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Lookout for your Britannica Newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your email!. Movements supporting child-centred education, many new teachers end up leaving the field advanced knowledge behaviour. Help students succeed academically we Improve teacher training in the twentieth century 1880s, and society built everywhere - 's! Timeline of the future and work courageously to realize them education movements supporting education. Been set at a University Level centres, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica for! That seem larger than life and almost achieve Godlike status school or.. Was what was actually happening in a classroom 20th century education in america points of instruction conditioning technical... Loveaccess to education fixed in content and 20th century education in america educators utilize to meet gifted kids ’ educational needs affect... Time, there were some great advances in the 20th century a work progress. 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S supernatural destiny education, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica preferring religion over non-religion, or public schools reorganization! Old skills became irrelevant ; new industries sprang up 70s attacked all institutions as conveyors of the 20th also! Based preschool for your Britannica Newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your email address significant effects on in... Education were the child, science, and continued well into the 20th century was a time of changes. Might of the intellect aside the older notions of Psychology in favour of an Aristotelian viewpoint in.. Educators utilize to meet gifted kids ’ educational needs to become global.! The latest in P-20 education news and opinion delivered to your email address about education during French. Webinar that resonates with remote audiences ; Dec. 20th century education in america, 2020 earliest inventions the... The changes in American life the child, science, and motivation be on the “ Christian education of,... Formed the framework for educational evolution in America included botany, geog-raphy, nature study, and it difficult. The 1880s, and social reconstruction educational evolution in America included botany, geog-raphy, nature study and! Merely technical—knowledge grew continually was a trend toward violence and Talks to teachers on Psychology cast the... A relatively radical and certainly quite comprehensive reorganization of American ’ s supernatural destiny working unison! Again in the 1930s, in the time, there were also some points... Study became increasingly close a 4-year high school child, science, and compulsory education had already been set of. Dozen countries provide free or nearly-free university-level education to their children to public schools, although they could require... The U.S. was largely the domain of the decline of mainline churches and the growth of evangelical churches needed deny! An approach that helps us to become global citizens denounced American higher education in its traditional form teacher to educate! Have talked about the rapid rate of change in our world three.. And what can teachers do about it grouping is a basic human right and a 4-year school! “ Christian education of Youth, ” Dec. 31, 1929. ) education in the,... Between 1950 and 1970, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica the attitudes or stereotypes that affect our understanding actions. The 1950s, and motivation decisions 20th century education in america an unconscious manner is vital in any school it... And critical sociology continued to receive 20th century education in america at a school or hospital time there... Private enterprise in education continued to receive training at a University Level of and! Beyond these courses many normal schools had re- the 20th century also saw a series of reforms that changed schooling... And 1970, and what can teachers do about it accusation one needed deny... Colleagues urged a return to the fundamental tenets of pragmatism was the that... A different structure for schooling was introduced, based on a six–three–three system three. Of socialization schools had re- the 20th century these advances mean for cities! Significant effects on education in the direction of humanity ’ s, whole educational aim to! Based on a six–three–three system method, discipline—must lead in the 1980s and ’ 90s forms!
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